Report on the burden of endemic health care-associated infection worldwide. [PubMed], van Gemert-Pijnen J, Hendrix MG, van der Palen J, Schellens PJ. A nosocomial infection is that which is acquired in a hospital or other health care agency. [DOI][PubMed], Motamed N, BabaMahmoodi F, Khalilian A, Peykanheirati M, Nozari M. Knowledge and practices of health care workers and medical students towards universal precautions in hospitals in Mazandaran Province. It is divided into the following three sections: Section 1 is related to the demographic information of the participants: age, gender, level of education, current position and duration of working, course training on NI control, and working experience in NI control measures. Such different levels of knowledge among nurses in these different studies might be due to the inadequacy of infection prevention and control training’ education, as it was found that those nurses who attended in-service training courses achieved a high knowledge scores . et al. Lack of knowledge among nurses can increase the rate of hospital-acquired infections. All the authors contributed in the data interpretation, reviewing and drafting the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript. Such infections are neither present nor incubating prior to a patient’s admission to a given hospital. 2003, 54: 68-73. NIs increase patients’ morbidity, mortality, the length of hospital stay, and treatment cost (Ginny ). A structured self-administered questionnaire was used. In order to meet the educational needs of the students about nosocomial infections, it is very important to provide more comprehensive trainings on A research problem is an area of concern in which there is a gap in the knowledge base needed for nursing practice (Burns & Grove 2011:146). 2004; Cheraghi MA, Nejad EM, Begjani J, Rabirad N, Ehsani SR, Kaji MA. Wedderburn M, Health care workers are front line of protecting themselves and clients from infection. Thus, why the males outnumbered the females in the current study could be explained from a cultural and religious perspective. -27 Health care workers can be a major source of vectors for pathogens. The knowledge level in these studies was (12.9, 10, and 37.7%), respectively. -5 Google Scholar. 62.2% were female and 66.9% were nurses by profession followed by pharmacist with 13.1%. Alhazmi MA, Studies have also shown gaps in knowledge and a negative attitude towards infection control among health workers. et al. However, only 85 questionnaires were filled completely and included in the final analysis. In the Yemeni healthcare setting, basic infection control measures are necessary to reduce the rates of hospital-associated infections. PubMed PubMed 1 Mar-Apr ... To verify whether there is some correlation between the nursing workload and the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections. However, our result is inconsistent with this previous study concerning the gender as El-Sayed et al. J Adv Nurs. Background: Nosocomial infections remain a global health problem and they are considered as one of the leading causes of increased morbidity and mortality. AIDS. 2013;5(1):9–19. 2012; 37(2) : 72 Privacy Such result indicates that new employees seem to be more cooperative than senior ones to participate in research. Google Scholar. 1. GGA, AB, HKS, SMD, and HOB were involved in the notion and the study design. Out of 100 distributed questionnaires, 85 questionnaires were filled completely and included in the final analysis, thus making up a response rate of 85%. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2016. -100 [DOI][PubMed], Ruza F, 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.  in India, Johnson et al. The results of the research showed that among 224 nurses who participated in the research, (53.6%) were women, (89%) had bachelor degree, (80.4%) were married, and (14.2%) were head nurses and supervisors. -7 1865. What is the current level of practices of nurses regarding infection control measures? Albarrak AM, doi: 10.5812/archcid.18278. Knowledgeand Attitudes of Nurses Regarding HIV/AIDS (Tehranâ2010). Results showed that (41.07%) of the study subjects had intermediate knowledge and (75.8%) of nurses had intermediate performance (Table 1). Article Therefore, future research should focus on improving knowledge and practices among nurses through educational intervention, during either their training courses or in-service refresher courses by assessing their knowledge and practices before and after intervention. Text Book of medical surgical nursing. Public Health Rep. 2007; 122(2) : 160 Therefore, we asked nurses what the recommended duration of hand rub is. Nurses' knowledge of and compliance with universal precautions in an acute care hospital. The results are illustrated in Fig. Background: Health care professionals are constantly exposed to microorganisms. 2006; 27(6) : 571 2002; 30(3) : 145 In relation , as it accounted for 90 and 89.7%, respectively. The present study was conducted through a descriptive cross-sectional framework on 224 nurses employed in the emergency departments of the three hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), selected by simple random sampling in the year 2012-2013. Furthermore, although the nurses showed a fair level of practices about the precautions that should be used to prevent NIs, they demonstrated a good level of practices in the actual actions as a way to prevent NIs during the daily activities. [DOI][PubMed], Dominguez TE, Chalom R, Costarino AT, Jr.. The results of the study showed that the majority of the nurses (61.2%) were males and they were the age group of 25 years and above (71.8%). Performance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus protocols in Dutch hospitals. Alhudaithi MA, 2001; 29(1) : 169 [DOI], Sadagiani M. Organization and Hospital Management. [PubMed], Raeis Karimian F, Rostami Nejad A. 3 Citations. Reliability of the tool items was tested using alpha Cronbach (α) test: section 2 of the tool = 0.81 and section 3 = 0.79 which considered acceptable. Madani TA, Int J Acad Res. Furthermore, the results revealed that almost above half (61.2%) of the participants were male holding nursing diploma (60%), which corroborates what was reported by El-Sayed et al. Therefore, this study aimed to identify gaps in nurses’ knowledge and practices regarding NI control measures in order to improve the current training courses and enhance future good practice. The selection bias also might exist in this study. Stein AD, Makarawo TP, Ahmad MF: A survey of doctors' and nurses' knowledge, attitudes and compliance with infection control guidelines in Birmingham teaching hospitals. As a result, it is vital to further investigate the impact of knowledge, understanding and practices of novice and experienced graduate nurses with regard to the level of the spread of nosocomial infections.  and Labrague et al.  in Ethiopia. Z. [PubMed], Couto RC, Pedrosa TM, Tofani Cde P, Pedroso ER. In general, regarding the overall nurses’ knowledge on the different infection prevention and control measures, it was found to be fair (87%). The collected data were analyzed by … J Adv Nurs. By Gamil Alrubaiee, Anisah Baharom, Hayati Kadir Shahar, Shaffe Mohd Daud & Huda Omar Basaleem . Rate and risk factors of surgical site infections with antibiotic prophylaxis. Knowledge and compliance of standard precautions among student nurses. Risk factors for nosocomial infection in a neonatal intensive care unit. Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs) are considered the major and common healthcare problems in most healthcare settings at most of developing countries like Iraq, important to assess the nurses' knowledge level and identifying gaps of their knowledge about NIs. Egypt: Elfayoum Governorate; 2011. Gamil Alrubaiee. Further details are given in Table 2. Iran J Clin Infect Dis. Results showed no significant relationship between knowledge level and practice. -84 According to the literature, factors associated with knowledge and practice of nurses towards the prevention of SSIs include but are not limited to work experience, level of nursing education, work load, training on infection prevention mechanisms, and nonadherence in infection prevention and patient safety guidelines [15, 16]. Int J Sci Res. Hospital acquired infections (HAIs), or commonly known as nosocomial infections, are infection acquired from the hospital by patients who are admitted for other reasons. This contrast in results could be due to the difference in setting and targeted group from study to another study. Therefore, this study determined the knowledge, attitude and practices of nurses in infection prevention and control within a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. A nosocomial infection is that which is acquired in a hospital or other health care agency. Concerning the level of nurses’ practices regarding infection prevention and control measures, the present study indicates that the majority (71.8%) of the Yemeni nurses had a fair level of practices in regard with precautions to prevent NIs, while nearly a third of them had a good level of practices on these precautions. Abstract- Background: Nurses play an important role in reducing nosocomial infection. It indicates that with improved knowledge, practice can be also improved, which should be of major concern in nurses. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. Further details of the respondents’ demographic characteristics are presented in Table 1. Delgado MA, 1994; 20(1) : 92 A total of 100 questionnaire were distributed, 50 in each hospital. Hepat Mon. We would like to thank all the nurses who willingly agreed to participate in this study as well as to those who helped us in the data collection, particularly the head of nursing departments in the selected hospitals. Korean Journal of Nosocomial Infection … This study was carried out in two private hospitals in Sana’a, the capital city of Yemen. 2005; 33(7) : 377 1). -6 Correct answers were calculated to obtain total scores for different infection control practices. Reducing the risk of infection and using the prevention principles are in the realm of nursing. CAS Section 3 is related to practices on NI control measures, and it consists of 15 items. Likewise, more than half of the nurses (67.1%) had a poor level of knowledge regarding safe injection practices. CAS Figure 2 indicates that the majority (71%) of nurses had fair overall practices, whereas 26% of them demonstrated good practices on different infection prevention and control measures. -63 Part of http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40886-017-0067-4. Based on the findings of this study, it could be concluded that the majority of the Yemeni nurses had fair knowledge and practices regarding NI control measures. Healthcare-associated infections are a major global public health agenda. Although the incidence rate for nosocomial infection vary from country to country, at any given time, almost seven patients from developed countries to ten patients from developing countries out of each100 patients admitted to hospitals gain at least one kind of nosocomial infections . Knowledge and practice of standard precautions among health care workers in the Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. Background : Nosocomial infection is one of the leading causes of death and increased morbidity for hospitalized Patients. Other researches also show that in spite of good knowledge, performances are weak (26); having knowledge will not always result in enhanced performance because environmental facilities and conditions influence the performance as well (27, 28). [PubMed], Vosylius S, Sipylaite J, Ivaskevicius J. 2004; McBride A. Int J Res Found Hosp Healthcare Admin. The maximum and minimum scores for each section vary based on the number of items in each section. A non-probability (purposive) sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Materials andMethods: This study wasa cross-sectional descriptive survey carried out in October, 2010. The performance of the investigated units was intermediate in 75.8% of the nurses regarding hospital infections control, which was consistent with the study by Moghaddasian et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited. -63 Knowledge and practices of nurses regarding nosocomial infection control measures in private hospitals in Sana’a City, Yemen Gamil Alrubaiee1*, Anisah Baharom1, Hayati Kadir Shahar1, Shaffe Mohd Daud2 and Huda Omar Basaleem3 Abstract Background: In the Yemeni healthcare setting, basic infection control measures are necessary to reduce the rates of hospital-associated infections. Hospitals had developed some permanent and reliable services in their organization. Based on the results of the present study, the majority of the Yemeni participating nurses were 25 years old and above (71.8%). 2014;3(2):311–21. Nurses’ knowledge concerning hygiene management and hand hygiene. A quantitative survey approach with non-experimental descriptive design was undertaken for this study. Iran J Nurse. The study was exclusive to private hospitals and nurses, and it used purposive sampling method. 2012;2(4):107–14. -7 H1: The mean post test knowledge score of staff nurses in ICU significantly than mean pre-test knowledge scores regarding nosocomial infection. Lai CY, Department of Nursing, Imam Khomeini Clinical and Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran, 4 ; 9(4):e18278. The study covered a period from April 2016 to May 2016. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. WHO. Healthcare-associated infections are a major global public health agenda. Knowledge and self-perceived practices regarding infection control among nursing students of a tertiary care hospital. Results of a number of studies in the area of infection control suggested that educational programs with the subject of controlling hospital infections result in improving the participation and attention of nurses and employees with respect to hospital infection and an important part of nurses programs is allocated to learning hospital infections (33-35). © Copyright 2020, Kowsar. Ask for permission from Nurses can prevent infection transferring among the patients of a hospital with proper disinfecting the skin, wearing gloves and masks, changing infusion sets, applying prudential measures, proper isolation, using the principles of standard cautions, observing hand hygiene, preventing accidental contact of hand with needle-stick and avoiding the infected respiratory discharges (19). Google Scholar.  who indicated that most (63.8%) of the nurses had no training course about NIs. et al. [PubMed], Ocran I, Tagoe DNA. An estimate of the annual cost of treatment for HAIs ranges from $4.5 billion to $11 billion and HAIs contributed 88000 deaths in the U.S. in 1995 (11, 12). Also, we wish to thank the managers of the private hospitals for their agreement, cooperation, and assistance. This result is compatible with the result obtained by Fashafsheh et al. El-Sayed M, Gomaa M, Abdel-Aziz M. Nurses’ knowledge and practice for prevention of infection in burn unit at a university hospital: suggested nursing guidelines. Zahra Tamizi Int J Nurs Stud. This is supported by a study that was conducted in Zimbabwe by Tirivanhu, Ancia and Petronella (2014:73) who determined the barriers of infection prevention and control practices among nurses at the Bindura provincial hospital. Safety in Health The data collection tool was a three-part questionnaire. α. Abstract- Background: Nurses play an important role in reducing nosocomial infection. A 45-item questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and practices regarding nosocomial infection control measures among the study subjects. Medication errors of nurses in the emergency department. Section 2 is related to knowledge and is divided into these two parts: Knowledge of preventive measures of person-to-person transmission, which includes hand hygiene (5 items), personal protective equipment (5 items), and safe injection practices (4 items), Knowledge of preventive measures of transmission from hospital environment, which involves routine hospital cleaning (4 items), safe waste handling and disposal (4 items), reprocessing of patient care equipment (4 items), and safe linen handling (4 items). Chi-square was used to compare the differences in percentage. Niger Postgrad Med J. 4, 1 Regarding the preventive measures used in preventing transmission of infections from the hospital environment, the results revealed that more than half (52.9%) of the participants had a good level of knowledge on routine hospital cleaning and the majority (81.1%) of them had a fair level of knowledge on safe waste handling and disposal. 3 Although there are many previous cross-sectional studies which revealed that the levels of nurses’ knowledge and practices are relatively poor and insufficient [12,13,14,15], to the researcher’s best of knowledge, so far, no study has been conducted in Yemen which is the context of the current study. Of course, the studies involving comparison of the observed and self-reported behaviors of infection control, including hand hygiene, demonstrated that employees and nurses always report more than what they really do (31). Awareness and adequate knowledge are important requirements for all health care workers. in Yasuj, Iran that indicated the proper performance of the majority of nurses (25). California Privacy Statement, volume 3, Article number: 16 (2017) Keywords: Infection control; Nurses; Nosocomial infection; Hand washing; Gloving. 2008; 29(7) : 642 The results also demonstrated that there were above half (67.1%) of the participants which had a poor level of knowledge and 32.9% of them had a fair level of knowledge; none of the participants had good knowledge on safe injection practices. 2 This study examined the knowledge and practice of healthcare workers on infection prevention and its associated factors among health professionals working at Debre Markos Referral Hospital. This result is compatible with Ebied  who found that more than half of nurses attended infection control course and continuing education programs. 2010; 23(64) : 17 Hence, nurses play a vital role in transmitting NIs, and their compliance with infection control measures seems to be necessary for preventing and controlling NIs . Aylifle GAJ, Fraise AP, Geddes AM, Mitchel K. Control of Hospital Infection. Basic infection control measures in any nursing setup can reduce the rates of healthcare-associated infections. S R, Tamizi H2: there will be a significant association between pre test & post test knowledge. Our study has several limitations, which should be addressed for future research. To analyze the practice, the scoring was conducted through a five-degree Likert scale (Never = zero point, rarely=one point, sometimes = two points, often = three points and always=four points). Hospitals had developed some permanent and reliable services in their organization. Iran J Med Sci. 2006; 12(5) : 653 E, Ehsani Assessment of knowledge and practice to control nosocomial infection, among the staff nurses, hi-tech medical college and hospital Abstract. In-ward nurses from both hospitals were invited during regularly scheduled educational meetings to fill the questionnaire and had to return it back at the same time to avoid any non-response bias. [PubMed], Horan TC, Andrus M, Dudeck MA. Knowledge of the subjects under study in infection control were assessed by a scoring system in which correct and incorrect answers provided for the questions were allocated one and zero point respectively. J Nurs Health Sci. The results also revealed that the majority of the nurses (71%) had fair practices about nosocomial infections whereas 26% of them had good practices and only 3% of them had poor practices. Observed hand hygiene in preventing nosocomial infections cause death and increased morbidity hospitalized... 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