Cultivars grown in Africa are seldom used by the local population and are mainly consumed by foreign visitors or exported to Europe (Lester et al. Flora Zambesiaca. Origin and domestication of the brinjal eggplant, Solanum melongena from S. incanum in Africa and Asia. Repert. Growth Form: Erect, branching herb up to 1.5 m tall. angustum S.P.Dikii Solanum melongena var. Erect annual herb, 0.2-0.5 m, unarmed, occasionally prickly. The transition from the vegetative to reproductive stage has been extensively investigated in tomato as i … We depend on Potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum= Lycopersicum esculentum) are the most common articles for cooking. 2013. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (PHYORH) is shown on the map. IDA-like genes were searched in relevant genera of the Solanaceae family including several species of Nicotiana (N. sylvestris, N. tomentosiformis, N. tabacum and N. benthamiana), and other crops of agronomic interest such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), potato (S. tuberosum), eggplant (S. melongena) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) (Table 1). Show Shimla Mirch). Syst. Solanaceae. Sepal tube is bell-shaped 1 cm in diameter. Accessed: 09-Oct-10. 2008. Family Name: Solanaceae: Synonyms: Solanum melongena var. Peralta, I. E., D. M. Spooner, and S. Knapp 2008. The first reports of the use of Solanum melongena as a … More Accounts and Images; ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (SOME) CalPhotos (SOME) … Solanum melongena in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Doganlar, S., A. Frary, M.-C. Daunay, R. N. Lester, and S. D. Tanksley. 0.9 cm long in long-styled flowers, broad and straight, moderately stellate-pubescent in the lower 1/2. Young stems terete, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent and unarmed, occasionally prickly, with porrect, translucent, sessile or occasionally stalked trichomes, the stalks to 0.2 mm long, the rays 8-15, 0.3-0.7 mm long, the midpoints ca. Domestication took place in the area between India, Myanmar and China, where many primitive or weedy eggplant types are still found. esculentum (Dun.) County documented: documented 2008); the elongated fruit type is not recorded until the 16th century (Daunay & Janick 2007). All Characteristics, the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes, the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes), the plant lives only a single year or less. Stamens equal, with the filament tube 2-3 mm long, the free portion of the filaments 1.2-3 mm long; anthers 5.5-7.5 mm long in long-styled flowers, 5.5-6 mm long in short-styled flowers, connivent, tapering, poricidal at the tips. acta hortic. The fruit is cooked. Note: when native and non-native On trouve Solanum melongena à l’état sauvage dans la région du Myanmar et du Yunnan où il s’est formé à partir du complexe Solanum incanum, qui avait précédemment migré vers l’Asie à partir du Proche-Orient et de l’Afrique de l’Est. Also covers those considered historical (not seen Though the basic type of ... (Solanum melongena L.) bear study of large collection from many countries hermaphrodite flowers in clusters as well as singly showed that, in 21.5% of varieties, the stigma Ghana: Atropo (Ga language, Hall & Bukenya 47135). 2. Nov. Regni Veg., Beih.. 16: 1-320. Copyright: various copyright holders. Eggplants belong to the nightshade family of vegetables, which also includes tomatoes, sweet peppers and potatoes. Nees Solanum melongena var. To reuse an Lester, R. N., and S. M. Z. Hasan. They are mainly found in Central and South America. Wild relatives of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): new understanding of species names in a complex group. a sighting. 467, 155-162 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.467.17 Mansfeld's World Database of Agriculture and Horticultural Crops - Solanum melongena Spec. Solanum melongena: inflorescence with 1-3 flowers, corolla 30–50 mm wide, purple to light purple, and berry 5–30 cm long, black, purple, pink, brown, yellow, or white (vs. S. carolinense, with the inflorescence with mostly 3–6 flowers, corolla 20–30 mm wide, … Eggplant (aubergine) (English). Early domesticates recorded from 300 BC in India and from 59 BC in China are likely to have been small, globular, and bitter (Wang et al. evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). Insect Environment 11(1) p 40. Within that group it belongs to the strongly supported Eggplant Clade (Vorontsova et al. same length as the rays. Eggplant origins: out of Africa, into the Orient. 2013) which is part of the Old World Clade of the spiny solanums (Leptostemonum; Levin et al. gigantea Alef. Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit. To prevent automated spam submissions leave this field empty. 2008 for a similar situation in the cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum L., and its wild progenitor, S. pimpinellifolium L.); cultivated plants are in a completely different evolutionary environment with different selection pressures than their wild progenitors. 102: 891–897. Wild Solanum melongena is found in the area of Myanmar–Yunnan where it developed from the Solanum incanum complex, which had previously migrated into Asia from the Middle East and East Africa. Solanum carolinense: inflorescence with mostly 3–6 flowers, corolla 20–30 mm wide, light purple to white, and berry 1–1.5 cm long, yellow (vs. S. melongena, with the inflorescence with 1-3 flowers, corolla 30–50 mm wide, purple to light purple, and berry 5–30 cm long, black, purple, pink, brown, yellow, or … Solanum melongena can be distinguished from S. incanum by its lack of prickles or rarely straight prickles (versus curved prickles, rarely straight prickles in S. incanum) and moderate pubescence making the plant green-brown or reddish as herbarium specimens (versus dense pubescence making the plant pale yellow in S. incanum). Solanaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes agricultural species such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (S. melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and potato (S. tuberosum). Bot. 100-200 per berry, 2.9-3.2 mm long, 2.2-2.5 mm wide, flattened-reniform, orange-brown. unintentionally); has become naturalized. Related Links. in part by the National Science Foundation. inflorescence varied within individual plants as well as between accessions. Discover thousands of New England plants. Homonyms Solanum melongena L. Solanum melongena is a cultivated species (eggplant) that was domesticated from a wild relative that lives Asia (Solanum incanum). Taxonomy of wild tomatoes and their relatives (Solanum sections Lycopersicoides, Juglandifolia, Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). Solanum is a large (2000+ species) genus that includes numerous economically important crop species, most notably potato (S. tuberosum), tomato (S. lycopersicum), and eggplant (S. melongena). Weese, T. L., and L. Bohs. L. E. All images and text © Known as “aubergine” in Europe, the name “brinjal” is … Also covers For details, please check with your state. History and iconography of eggplant. Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats). The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. In this scenario ancestors of tropical African S. campylacanthum (groups A and B) gave rise to ancestors of southern African S. lichtensteinii (group D) and northern African S. incanum s.s. (group C). morphological traits of the interspecific eggplant hybrid solanum melongena x solanum torvum. The relationships of the African eggplant relatives are supported by results from molecular phylogenetics (Weese & Bohs 2010; Vorontsova et al. insanum (L.) Banfi, Galasso & Bartolucci Solanum melongena var. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Licence. The inflorescence is a dense, compact, branched head consisting of 50-100 flowers at the ends of branches. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. same length as the rays or elongated to 1 mm, with minute simple hairs, the prickles 1-3 mm long, less than 0.5 mm wide at base, straight, acicular, yellow-orange to dark brown, glabrous, spaced 10-50 mm apart; bark of older stems glabrescent, green-brown to dark brown. Your help is appreciated. This division is to a certain extent artificial, but we prefer to maintain the cultivated and wild forms as separate species (see also Peralta et al. those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). Solanum melongena, commonly known as eggplant or aubergine, belongs in the plant family Solanaceae, which also houses tomato, potato, nicotine and the poisonous deadly nightshade plant. 8, Part 4. 2010. The eggplant was likely domesticated in Indo-China from the wild progenitor S. insanum, giving rise to the great variety of cultivars found there, including the more “primitive” prickly S. melongena (group G) and eventually the commercial cultivars (group H). to exist in the county by state. 2007. Daunay, M.-C., and J. Janick. Leaves simple, the blades 10-23 cm long, 9-15 cm wide, 1.5-2 times longer than wide, ovate, chartaceous, drying discolorous; adaxial surface yellow-green to red-brown, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent; abaxial surface glaucous, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, with porrect, sessile or stalked trichomes, the stalks to 0.2, the rays 5-8, 0.3-1 mm long, the midpoints ca. 84: 1-186. populations both exist in a county, only native status Found this plant? Soc. Taxon 59: 49-56. Sci. A large fleshy kidney shaped berry is that ranges in color from green, to white, to purple-black when immature and when it should be eaten. Solanum is among the largest genera, having more than 1500 described plant species (Chen, 1997). Wetland Status. Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical). 467, 155-162 Acta Hortic. Ovary stellate-pubescent in the upper 1/4; style ca. you. Solana Africana. Foliage: Hairy leaves are ovate (egg-shaped) to ovate-oblong (elongated egg shape). Cultivated in Uppsala, Sweden, Anonymous s. n. (lectotype, designated by Schönbeck-Temesy 1972: LINN! Conservation of gene function in the Solanaceae as revealed by comparative mapping of domestication traits in eggplant. 1.2- Species Solanum melongena L. - Eggplant + Overview Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species in genus Solanum L. in tribe Solaneae of nightshade grown for its edible fruit. The Go Botany project is supported post Genetic analysis of quantitative traits in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) Veg. Genetics 161: 1713–1726. Madagascar: Yundahl (Lunt 164). The aubergine (eggplant) is the economically most important member of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum with numerous commercial cultivars adapted to a range of tropical and temperate climates. Solanum incanum s.s. is then proposed to have dispersed into Arabia and Asia, possibly aided by man because of the value of its berries for tanning hides (Bitter 1923). You must have JavaScript enabled to use this form. grossum, vern. cylindricum S.P.Dikii Solanum melongena var. [LINN 248.28]). Modern understanding of eggplant origins has its origins in work done by members of Richard Lester’s group at the University of Birmingham (Lester & Hasan 1991). As the fruit matures it gets stringy and bitter. 5.  J. G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, M. Nee, and N. Estrada, 369-387. image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. J. Linn. Eggplant (US, Australia, New Zealand, anglophone Canada), aubergine (UK, Ireland, Quebec) or brinjal (South Asia, South Africa) is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Solanum melongena L., the cultivated Brinjal egg- plant, was originally described by Linnaeus (1753) who considered plants cultivated in Asia, Africa and America. 2013). It is a perennial plant which is commonly grown as an annual. Fruit a globular to ovoid, ellipsoid, or oblong to variously curved berry, 1 per infructescence, 3-20 cm long, 3-7 cm wide, the pericarp smooth, green, sometimes mottled or striped, white, pink, mauve, purple, or black when young, usually white or maroon at maturity, glabrous; fruiting pedicels 2.5-8 cm long, 2-4 mm in diameter at base, woody, pendulous, with 0(-5) prickles; fruiting calyx lobes elongating to 12-50 mm long, 1/4-1/3 the length of the mature fruit, often cup-shaped around the fruit in some cultivars, with 0(-30) prickles. Take a photo and Native Plant Trust or respective copyright holders. 173: 176-193. doi:10.1111/boj.12053. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057039. Monogr. Increased anthocyanin in the stems, leaves and corollas are likely an accidental by-product of selection for fewer prickles, as the loci responsible are located near each other (Doganlar et al. 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